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蒙特梭利國小環境的三個工具 Montessori Elementary 3 Essential Tools

These are notes I took while reading this article: http://montessoriguide.org/the-three-essential-tools  for the purpose of sharing with Mandarin reading friends in Taiwan who are interested in how Montessori functions at the elementary level. For the English version of these notes, please scroll down to the bottom. or just read her excellent article! : )

這是我讀這篇介紹蒙特梭利國小工具的文章的筆記:

#1. 紀錄本

記錄本的使用是孩子們第一天進入教室時的第一堂演示(蒙特梭利的演示通常是一對一的個別課程,有時會用小團體的方式進行)。記錄本孩子記下一天如何運用,包含:

  • 孩子得到的演示
  • 孩子自由選擇的工作

這本不是為了記錄:

  • 之後的計畫
  • 孩子對於某個指定學習項目的心得

記錄本內容:

  • 日期、時間(某個工作)、工作/演示名稱、結束時間
  • 休息時間如何運用
  • 選擇性的塗鴉

目標:『簡明、釐清、數量化和美化』

建議如何做紀錄本:

  1. 一開始是老師手作的精美記錄本,只有足夠一週紀錄的。
  2. 一個(美國經典黑白)筆記本 composition style notebook,可以讓孩子自己裝飾。這應該由孩子來購買,賦予孩子對本子有責任感。

老師的責任:

  • 監督(檢查記錄本):可以每天用一種友善、幽默的態度去檢查記錄本,讓孩子知道這很重要。
  • 老師應該以身作則,自己有用一本記錄本。

可以問團體孩子的問題:

  • 你最有意思的工作是什麼?
  • 最具挑戰的工作是什麼?
  • 你今天有什麼發現嗎?
  • 你在X時候在什麼?
  • 你今天跟朋友做了什麼工作?
  • 你最後一個(生物)工作是什麼?

蒙特梭利:『將孩子視為一個個體,而所有的孩子為團體。』

讓紀錄成為團體的文化。互相幫助(那些對於這個責任有困難的同儕)。

#2. 社會的期待

社會的期待指的是地方或國家的教育綱領/進度。這應當被視為幫助孩子自我建構和自評的工具。

老師的工作:

  • 社會的期待應該被整理成一個讓孩子可以懂的形式。
  • 如任何其他工作一樣跟孩子做演示(每年小組演示)。在適當的時機提起。如:『對於社會期待你能在年底前了解的分數工作,現在做的怎麼樣啊?』

在一個社群裡,有自信的領導者會促使更年輕的孩童運用這個工具來做自評。

老師的工作:

  • 給正確的孩子種下足夠的責任種子。
  • 工具主要是由孩子來監督的。

重要的是:社會的期待不能去使宇宙教育偏離!

反之,我們將社會的期待為一個工具來運用:

  • 幫助我們的自由有架構
  • 對探索有一些指引的方向
  • 幫助緩和家長的疑慮

#3 與孩子開會 

我們會有兩種時常的開會:

  1. 日常的:規律的檢查紀錄本、跟孩子交集。孩子可能不會意識到這是開會,不過老師對於這些都應該要做紀錄。
  2. 正式的:每兩個禮拜做一次,有著清楚地先前預期(要做什麼)和開會的時間有公佈

正式會議的行程

  • 檢視記錄本並討論學生的時間運用
  • 全觀完成且進行中的工作
  • 孩子是否有責任的運用他所得到的自由呢?
  • 工作是否是期待的品質?
  • 孩子是否有探索了環境的各領域?還是只有在最喜歡的領域?
  • 有哪些示範有帶給孩子了(同儕和老師)?
  • 對社會的期待很重要的課程,孩子是否有效跟進?
  • 孩子有負責任的選擇嗎?

工作是快速檢視的,一直都是傾聽孩子對於自己的自評。

開會後,老師一定要再跟進follow up(孩子是否有執行)!

DSC02860

~~~以下是筆記的英文版~~~

Reading notes on The Three Essential Tools, by Melinda Nielson

#1. The Journal

Introducing children to The Journal is the 1st great lesson given to children on their 1st day of class. It is an account of how the child spent his/her day, including:

  • Lessons that were given to child
  • Freely chosen work.

Not for recording:

  • Planning ahead
  • child’s feelings about an assigned topic

CONTENTS of The Journal:

  • date, time (of certain work), name of work/lesson, end time.
  • How downtime is spent
  • illustrations (optional)

Goals: “specify, clarify, quantify, & beautify”.

Suggestions for how the journal is made:

  1. Initially a teacher made booklet with just enough pages for a week at a time. Beautifully bound.
  2. a composition style bound book (can be decorated by child) This should be purchased by child to embrace responsibility.

Teacher’s responsibility:

  • Monitor (check journals): can check in daily in a kind, humorous way just to let the child know it is important.
  • Teacher should set an example by keeping a journal too!

Questions that can be asked to community (children):

  • What was your most interesting work?
  • What was your most challenging work? or, What did you find challenging?
  • What did you discover today?
  • What were you doing at X time?
  • What work did you do with a friend today?
  • What was the last work done with (biology)?

Montessori: “Recognize the child as an individual, and the children as a group.”

Make journaling a part of the community culture. Help each other who have difficulty with this responsibility.

#2. Societal Expectations

These are local and national curriculum…etc.

Societal Expectations should be considered as a tool to assist child is self-construction; evaluate themselves.

Teacher’s work:

  • These expectations should be synthesized and rewritten in a form accessible to the child.
  • Offered to child as any piece of material is (present to small groups yearly). Make reference at opportune/appropriate times. ie: “How are you doing with that fraction work society expects you to know by the end of this year?”

As a community, the confident leaders will enable the younger members to self-evaluate with this tool.

Teacher’s work:

  • Plant enough seeds of responsibility to the right children
  • tool will essentially be monitored by children

Important: Societal Expectations should not detract from Cosmic Education!

Instead, we use Societal Expectations as a tool:

  • Helps provide structure to freedom
  • offers guidance to explorations
  • ease parental anxieties

#3 Meeting with Child

There are 2 types of meeting that are conducted regularly:

  1. CASUAL : regular journal check, check-in conversations, children may not be aware that these are meetings but teachers should record all of these.
  2. FORMAL: done every two weeks with  – Clear Prior Expectations & – Schedule posted of meetings

The Agenda of Formal Meetings

  • Scrutinize work journal and consider student’s time use
  • Overview of completed & in-progress endeavors
  • Is child responsible for freedom given?
  • Is work of expected quality?
  • Has child explored all areas of environment, or just favorite?
  • What lessons have been given to child (by peers & teacher)?
  • Has child followed up appropriately on lessons that are essential to Societal Expectations?
  • Has child made responsible choices?

Work is quickly reviewed, always listening to child’s self-evaluation.

MUST FOLLOW UP!

Personal thoughts:

This rather reminds me of productivity planning, and some of my husband’s management strategies that he shares with me time-to-time based on his corporate experience.

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